A digging bar is a long, straight metal bar used for various purposes, including as a post hole diggerto break up or loosen hard or compacted materials such as soil, rock, concrete and ice or as a lever to move objects.
Known by other names depending on locale, structural features and intended purpose such as a hop bar or crowbar in Britain, Australia and New Zealand,  and slate barshale barspud barpinch point bar or San Angelo bar in North America, or just a bar. Common uses of digging bars include breaking up clay, concrete, frozen ground, and other hard materials, moving or breaking up tree roots and obstacles, and making holes in the ground for fence posts. They are often used where space would not allow the use of a pickaxe.
The ends of a digging bar are shaped for various purposes. Common end shapes include:. Log-peeling spuds are used to remove the bark from logs. This tool is also called a Bark spud or a barking iron. Fishing through holes in ice is common in many parts of the world. One of the earliest methods of cutting these holes was to use a device variously known as an ice spud or ice chisel.
Many chisel variations exist, including jagged teeth, skewed edges, and different grind angles and chisel widths. Early ice spuds before about often had wooden handles and a steel chisel fixed with a tang and collar or socket, similar to a carpenter's chisel. Ice spuds are still carried by many ice fishermen as a means to test ice thickness and safety; a single forceful thrust of the ice spud will often penetrate unsafe ice.
A lining bar is used to shift the alignment of railroad tracks, to manipulate some types of railroad track jacks, to "nip up" or lift ties and rails, and as a digging tool. Lining bars have a tapered form. They may have a pyramidal, wedge, or pinch point. They transition to a tapered round cross section 12 to 18 inches from the point. They are made of forged steel and may be from five to six feet long.
Lining bars may also be called jack bars, jack handles, or crowbars in North American railroad jargon. A spud bar has a chisel at one end that is intended for removing material through a chipping or shaving action. In the British Isles these typically have a narrow, unsharpened chisel point at one end and a point at the other end, with diameters up to about1. Some have plastic grips on the shaft and some have wider chisel ends, or "rakes", for specific jobs such as removing old shingles and tar paper.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A long, straight metal bar used as a post hole digger, to break up or loosen hard or compacted materials or as a lever to move objects. Blacksmithing basics for the homestead. Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith, Publisher, More Information.
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Simple Mechanical Levers Calculators. Our trainer is certified per. ASME Y Membership Register Login. Copyright, by Engineers Edge, All rights reserved. More Information Note: Many of the links first open an equations web page. Look for the the "Calculators" link to open the actual calculator application.
Not all web page actually open to a calculator at this time, however there will be the associated calculator in the near future. Left vertical member guided horizontally, right end pinned.
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This photo of the leaning tower of Pisa was sent to us by our friend Tom Smith who knows a crooked building when he sees one. Smith points out that the problems with the Tower have been known for generations and must have been apparent even during construction, as the upper level was constructed with an offset to try to re-balance the structure. Modern reinforcement has permitted removal of cables that used to be tied to the tower of Pisa.
As Bernie Campbalik says about old buildings, "Yep, we had guys like that back then too. Our photo left illustrates a combination of factors leading to a strong indication of serious structural damage at a home: aluminum siding at ground level risk of insect attack combined with buckled siding at the bottom course a condition that only occurs long after original construction point to crushed wooden sills under this structure, most often due to insect attack or rot or both.
On - by mod - where to find more details about container-housing. Sure Zn Thanks for asking. These are really enormous tips which help in Building Structures. But when it comes to shipping container, it seems little.
Can you provide more valuable information on shipping container house. Container house are easily to fold,easy to assembly,easy to install with low cost. Provided we have correctly identified the mousture source we need to 1. Remove the mold 2.
Any other approach won't be successful. Hi, I own a 's purpose built flat in a block of 12 flats in Worthing, West Sussex. I've given the flat over to an agent in Worthing to rent it out. They found me a tenant. Since she's been there the humidity levels seem to have shot up to a point where wall paper has slid off the walls.
Mould can be seen on the surface. The ceiling in the bathroom has been covered in mould due to her daily showering without opening the window. About 3 months into her tenancy I discovered her mother both mother an daughter are from Bolivia is effectively living there although the agent says she is just visiting. Seem pretty convenient the boy comes home from school to eat his tea while Mum is still at work miles away.
Gran is there to cook him his tea and comfort him while waiting for his mum to come home.
Gran starts preparing food circa 3pm in a large pan fundamentally full of boiling water. She opens the kitchen door to the rest of the flat and fills the place with steam while preparing the meal. In a spare moment she showers the boy ready for ma to come home ma steps in and takes a shower this is all done with the window shut and the door to the flat wide open.
She has complained to the council about mould and moisture running down the walls. The council have given me and improvement notice and stipulated I need to have electrically drive mechanical venting installed in my bathroom and kitchen. I've said to the council the windows and doors work fine so what's the point? They stated that this is an improvement. I said it's not necessary as the windows and doors are big enough to allow steam to escape.
That's not an improvement.Everybody knew about her delicious concoction. Best for miles around. But to get your hands on it, you gotta head way, way out to a run-down, broken-down farm at the far edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains.
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As the first double launch roller coaster in the Carolinas, Copperhead Strike delivers twice the boost and twice the bite. A series of fast, tight, close-to-the-ground maneuvers are tangled with five head-over-heels inversions -- the most of any double launch coaster in North America. Ready for this backwoods adventure? New forit will be ready for you — only at Carowinds.
As the first double launch roller coaster in the Carolinas, Copperhead Strike will deliver twice the boost and twice the bite. The ride immediately leaves the station and goes into a jo-jo roll before loading into the launch station. After pausing, the ride takes off at an incredible 0 to 42 miles per hour in just 2. Guests will experience a series of fast, tight, close-to-the-ground maneuvers and flip upside down in five head-over-heels inversions -- the most of any double launch coaster in North America.
Midway through the ride, a second thrust of acceleration launches riders into the next half of the exciting experience.
Copperhead Strike does not let up during its 2 minute and 24 second ride along 3, feet of steel. It's full throttle all the way from start to finish! Covering the western portion of North Carolina and a sliver of South Carolina's upstate, the Blue Ridge Mountains region offers a majestic landscape, vibrant colors and undeniable charm.
Enjoy the natural, easy-going culture of the Carolina mountains at Blue Ridge Junction, a new, immersive 7-acre themed area at Carowinds. Sit a spell and savor home-grown flavors at our new Blue Ridge Country Kitchen restaurant.
Soar like a bird on Mountain Gliders or get twice the bite during a high-speed, backwoods chase on the new Copperhead Strike, the Carolinas' first double launch coaster. Skip to Next Section Slideshow starts. Ride Overview As the first double launch roller coaster in the Carolinas, Copperhead Strike will deliver twice the boost and twice the bite.
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Rider Safety Information A double launch, full circuit roller coaster featuring weightlessness, high speed banked turns, and rapid directional changes. An individual lap bar secures each rider across the thighs and pelvis with a between-the-legs safety belt. Due to the nature of the restraint, this ride may not accommodate guests of a larger size.
A test seat is located at the ride entrance which can be used to ensure proper function and comfort prior to waiting in line. Guests must have a minimum of three functioning extremities; one functioning arm and two functioning legs.If you have forgotten your Log-in ID and password, click here.
How can we improve? While we are not able to respond directly to comments submitted in this form, the information will be reviewed for future improvement. Please use the inquiry form. Tapered roller bearings utilize conical rollers and raceways, arranged so that the rollers and raceways meet at a common apex.
The rollers are guided by contact between the large end of the roller and a rib on the inner ring.Buhner mycoplasma protocol
This provides high capacity for radial and single thrust loads. Crowned rollers under load distribute stress equally along their full length of contact with the raceways, thereby eliminating stress concentration at the roller ends. This design concept also compensates for minor misalignment between shaft and housing bore and deflection under load, thereby reducing stress concentration.
Cylindrical roller bearings are suitable for applications involving high-speed rotation because the friction between the rolling elements and the flange of the track wheel is small. Products on this page: N type. NKXZ12 is out of stock and potentially not available for 6 months or more. Please email engineering misumiusa.
They have a rigid structure and a high lubricant-retaining capacity. As they have the lowest sectional height compared with other thrust bearings, they can be used instead of conventional thrust washers and can withstand high-speed rotations with a low coefficient of friction.
Specially designed thin inner rings WS and outer rings GSand especially thin 1 mm thick thrust washers ASare available for use in various applications. These bearings are generally used by utilizing their inner surface as the guide surface.
Self-Aligning roller bearings NTN. The outer ring measurements are minimized and compacted, but it still maintains high rigidity. For this reason, it is optimal for a variety of applications such as manufacturing robot joints and turning parts, machining center turning tables, manipulator rotating parts, precision rotary tables, medical equipment, measurement equipment, and IC manufacturing equipment. Used in areas where inner ring rotation accuracy is required.
Crossed Roller Bearings are compact bearings with their rollers alternately crossed at right angles to each other between inner and outer rings. They can take loads from any directions at the same time such as radial, thrust and moment loads. The rollers make line-contact with raceway surfaces, and, therefore, elastic deformation due to bearing loads is very small.
These bearings are widely used in the rotating parts of industrial robots, machine tools, medical equipment, etc. Shell Type Needle Roller Bearings are lightweight bearings with large load ratings.
They employ a shell type outer ring made from a thin special-steel plate which is accurately drawn, carburized and quenched, thus providing the lowest sectional height among the needle roller bearings. There are two types of bearings available in this series; the caged type and the full complement type.
The appropriate type can be selected according to the operating conditions. The caged type has a structure in which the needle rollers are accurately guided by the cage and thrust rings.A beam is a structural element that primarily resists loads applied laterally to the beam's axis.
Its mode of deflection is primarily by bending. The loads applied to the beam result in reaction forces at the beam's support points. The total effect of all the forces acting on the beam is to produce shear forces and bending moments within the beam, that in turn induce internal stresses, strains and deflections of the beam.
Beams are characterized by their manner of support, profile shape of cross-sectionequilibrium conditions, length, and their material. Beams are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering structural elements, but any structures such as automotive automobile frames, aircraft components, machine frames, and other mechanical or structural systems contain beam structures that are designed to carry lateral loads are analyzed in a similar fashion. Historically beams were squared timbers but are also metal, stone, or combinations of wood and metal  such as a flitch beam.
Beams primarily carry vertical gravitational forces. They are also used to carry horizontal loads e. The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columnswallsor girderswhich then transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members and eventually to the ground.
In light frame constructionjoists may rest on beams.
In engineering, beams are of several types: . In the beam equation I is used to represent the second moment of area. Therefore, it encompasses not just how much area the beam section has overall, but how far each bit of area is from the axis, squared.
The greater I is, the stiffer the beam in bending, for a given material. Internally, beams subjected to loads that do not induce torsion or axial loading experience compressivetensile and shear stresses as a result of the loads applied to them. Typically, under gravity loads, the original length of the beam is slightly reduced to enclose a smaller radius arc at the top of the beam, resulting in compression, while the same original beam length at the bottom of the beam is slightly stretched to enclose a larger radius arc, and so is under tension.
Modes of deformation where the top face of the beam is in compression, as under a vertical load, are known as sagging modes and where the top is in tension, for example over a support, is known as hogging.
The same original length of the middle of the beam, generally halfway between the top and bottom, is the same as the radial arc of bending, and so it is under neither compression nor tension, and defines the neutral axis dotted line in the beam figure.
Above the supports, the beam is exposed to shear stress. There are some reinforced concrete beams in which the concrete is entirely in compression with tensile forces taken by steel tendons. These beams are known as prestressed concrete beams, and are fabricated to produce a compression more than the expected tension under loading conditions.
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